– ( is an IP address that belongs to a block of private IP addresses within Class A. This block includes all the addresses from to and the address we are going to talk about is the first in this scope that can be assigned to some device since the first one ( is always reserved for network. (often miswritten as is one of the common default gateways. It is not used as often as or, but still, some manufacturers assign this address to their routers since it’s private IP address just like any 192.168.x.x. Our main goal will be to explain all the basic things you need to know about IP addresses and to give you some examples of how to use this address. You can think of this article as of a story about IP addresses and default gateways for dummies. We won’t complicate the story too much, so that everyone, even those who know nothing about IP addresses, routers, and router settings, could understand everything (or at least, the most of the story). We are certain that you will have a much better comprehension of IP addresses and default gateways after reading this short article.

IP Addresses – Their Significance and Address Assigning Process

When it comes to networking, IP address is the most important thing. Whether you are trying to connect to a local network (home or corporate network) or to the internet, your device must have a unique ID called IP address. That’s the only way of identifying your device on any network and the reason you must have it is the fact that communication wouldn’t be possible without it. Visiting a site, accessing some data server, sending e-mails, etc., are all, in fact, interactions between different devices on the network. Every device must have a unique IP address in order to ‘’interact’’ with others. So, when you type in some term in Google Search and hit Enter, what happens is that your PC (phone, or any other device you are using) is trying to connect to the internet through your router and interact with a server that is going to find the term you entered. All the devices involved in this interaction (your device, router, server) have their own IP addresses and they ‘’recognize’’ each other thanks to these addresses.

The process of assigning IP addresses is not random in any way. It is, in fact, defined through a set of regulations. All these regulations together are called IPv4 protocol. IPv4 defines IP address as a binary code made of 32 bits (0s and 1s). These 32 bits are divided into 4 groups separated by dots, each made of 8 bits. Every unique combination of 0s and 1s is another IP address. There are nearly 4.3 billion of different combinations (IP addresses). You need at least some basic knowledge of combinatorics to understand why is there this exact number of IPv4 addresses – the shortest explanation is that there are 232 possible combinations of 32 0s and 1s (if you don’t have any more restrictions regarding the number of 0s or 1s in binary code). Any binary code can be translated into real numbers, specifically four numbers (also separated by dots), and these numbers range from 0 to 255 (because 8 0s are translated into 0, 8 1s are translated into 250, and any combination of 8 0s and 1s can be translated into a number between 0 and 255). That kind of notation is what we see as an IP address. So, for example, the address from the title ( is an IP address written in decimal notation.

4.3 billion of unique addresses might seem enough but with current technological development, growth of the internet and increased number of all kinds of devices connected to different networks, some changes (tricks, if you want) had to be made in order to prolong the life of IPv4. Otherwise, we would run out of IP addresses a long time ago and it would be impossible to connect any new device to the internet.

Methods of Prolonging the Life of IPv4

There are two important things we have to mention when it comes to methods of prolonging the life of IPv4. The first one is the introduction of blocks of private addresses and the second one is the introduction of dynamic IP addresses.

4.3 billion unique IP addresses are divided into groups. There are five groups of addresses called classes (from A to E). Only three of these classes are meant for everyday use and within each of these classes, there are isolated blocks of IP addresses called private addresses. Within the first block, there is a scope ranging from to and all these addresses are considered private. As you can see, the address from the title belongs to this block. All the other addresses are considered public. The main difference between these two groups is that you can’t access all of them through the internet (private can’t be accessed while public can be accessed). Every website must have its own public IP address so anyone can access it. On the other hand, private users don’t need public addresses since nobody wants other people to be able to access their devices. That’s why every device you have at your home has some private IP address assigned to it (usually some 192.168.x.x address but any 10.x.x.x address is also possible). The best thing about private addresses is that bunch of devices on private (home or corporate) networks can use the same one (as long as there is no IP conflict within these small networks which means that every device on that smaller network must have its own unique IP within that network). The introduction of blocks of private addresses reduced growing consumption of IPv4 addresses significantly, it prolonged the life of IPv4 and enabled smooth transition towards the new IPv6 protocol.

The second thing that prolonged the life of IPv4 is the introduction of static and dynamic addresses. Any private address can be static (which means that the device will get the same IP address every time it connects to some network) or dynamic (which means that different IP address will be assigned to a device every time it gets connected to a network). Devices like PCs and phones, usually don’t need static (reserved) IP address and you will be just fine with any IP address from the pool of available addresses that will be assigned to you by the DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server. Usage of dynamic IP addresses also reduces the consumption of available IP addresses, since any given device on the network can have any given address from the pool. So, if you have a network with, let’s say 300 computers but only half of them are connected to the network at the same time, you will be just fine with 254 available addresses or even less – you don’t have to use all 300 addresses. Some devices, like data file servers and printers, still have to have static (reserved) IP address so any device on the network could find them at any time.

We have mentioned already the transition towards the new protocol. The thing is that even with the introduction of private IP addresses and dynamic IP addresses, the available number of IPv4 addresses won’t be enough. That’s why this new protocol was invented and it was named IPv6. This new protocol offers incredible amount of IP addresses (340 undecillion) and it will be present for many decades. We are all still using IPv4 addresses (IPv6 is not put into effect) and this transition period will take some time (maybe a few years, maybe a decade, and maybe even more). – Router’s Default IP Address

We have already said that this one is one of the addresses from the private block within Class A. It is more often used as a default IP address for some network servers within larger business networks but can be found in home networks, too. Some router manufacturers, like Cisco, Asus, D-Link, Sitecom, SMC Networks, use as a default gateway for some router models. You can use this address to adjust your network settings and configure your router.

Connecting to A Router With IP Address and Changing Router Configuration

Connecting to a router and accessing router’s setup page is basically the same with any default gateway. The only thing you have to do is to type in default IP address correctly (people often make a mistake and type in instead of and you will be redirected to the router’s login page. By entering any of the default usernames and passwords (we are assuming that you haven’t changed the password and username already – if you did, you should enter the new ones), you will come to the setup page (or router’s configuration page). You can use this page to adjust all kinds of network-related settings – you can set a name for your wireless network (SSID), change password and username, enter static IP address along with subnet mask and default DSN, etc.

Issues You May Experience When Trying to Access Your Router’s Configuration Page by Using (and some simple solutions for these issues)

Entering router’s configuration page is not always simple. There are sometimes issues that prevent you from entering this page. Some of these issues are not so complicated but, on some occasions, the only solution is resetting the router or even buying a new one (in case of a hardware failure).

Connection to is taking too long

If the connection is taking too long or you can’t even connect to the router and access the login page, you can use ping command in Command Prompt (Windows) or in Terminal (Linux and Mac OS) to establish if there is some network issue. By typing in ‘’ping’’ you will send experimental data packages from your device to your router and if these packages are getting echoed back to you, then everything is fine with network. If you get some error message, then you can try restarting the router or if that doesn’t work, try resetting it by pressing the reset button for a few seconds (depending on the model, you might have to hold this button for 10 seconds).

Technical Failures

If the ping test fails (if you get message like IP address can’t be reached or connection timed out) then you can be assured that there is some problem with the network. If resetting the router doesn’t help, there is probably some hardware failure and you should buy a new router.

Typing mistakes

If you make a typing mistake, you won’t be able to access login page. The most common mistake with this address is entering too many zeros ( instead of  Be careful and always check the address you entered before pressing Enter.

Wrong password and/or username

If you can’t access the configuration page because of the wrong password and/or username, you should check first if you are using the right ones. You will find the defaults in the user manual or at the back of the router (there should be some sticker or label). You can also try typing in some of the most common combinations (admin, Administrator, empty fields, etc.). If nothing works, reset is the only solution.

IP Conflicts

If your router’s default gateway is and there is some device with the same reserved (static) IP address, that device will be in conflict with the router (IP conflict) and there will be network issues. The solution – reserve different address for that device and avoid IP conflict that way.

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